Type-2 diabetes is a very common type of diabetes that has affected3 million people in UK while around 27 million people in the US have been diagnosed with this disease. People diagnosed with this type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Let’s make it clearer. Insulin is a hormone being produced in the pancreas and it handles the sugar levels in blood. Now, a person is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when insulin is not produced at proper amount or when our body can’t respond to the produced insulin properly. Here is a detailed explanation about this disease.
Causes of Type-2 diabetes
There are number of causes of type-2 diabetes. These are:
We all carry different bits of DNA. And the scientists have revealed that different bits of DNA are the reasons how our body generates insulin. So, those whose body generates less insulin are affected by type-2 diabetes.
This is another strong reason of this disease. Especially if the body carries extra pound at the middle of the body, the chances of being affected by Type-2 diabetes is increased even more.
Different metabolic syndrome such as high blood pressure, high blood glucose, triglycerides and high cholesterol can cause type-2 diabetes.
Wrong communication between cells
Sometimes wrong communication between the cells can lead to this disease. For example, if a cell is not sending the messages at right time or if it does not pick up the proper message correctly, this mishap happens. If this is the case with the cells that generate and use insulin, type-2 diabetes arises.
Low blood sugar
Low blood sugar is another reason behind type-2 diabetes. Generally the sugar level goes up after having meals. And slowly the liver stores some glucose for later use. But, when liver is not able to store but it just generates and sends out the glucose, it causes low blood sugar which in turn takes the form of type-2 diabetes.
Symptoms of Type-2 diabetes
This is a disease that develops very slowly and sometimes people might be unaware of the fact even though they have been affected few years back. The general symptoms of type-2 diabetes are:
Increased thirst and peeing very frequently
When the amount of sugar exceeds in blood, it absorbs more fluid from tissue thusleaving you thirsty and huge amount of water consumption is the reason of frequent urination normally.
Fluid is being absorbed from the lenses of eyes as well when the blood sugar level is too high, thus it affects the vision also.
The muscles and organs make use of more energy to move sugar in the cells when the amount of insulin is not enough. This leads to hunger pangs.
You might notice that despite eating more, the weight is going down. The reason is excess glucose gets released through urine and as a result more calories are used by the body.
Tiredness and irritation
Less amount of sugar can make you feel very tired andirritated for no reason.
Less healing power
Frequent infection and less healing power is another strong sign of type-2 diabetes as this disease affects the healing power and immunity system of our body.
Also dark patches, tingling in the hands or feet, headache, etc. are other signs of this disease.
Treatment of Type-2 diabetes
Those who are being already affected by type-2 diabetes, the first advice is to follow the doctor’s suggestions. Also there are some small tricks to do at home that can cut down the risk a lot.
If you have obesity or you are overweight, try to lose at least 10% of the current weight as this reduces the risk of type-2 diabetes to a great extent.
Being active all the time is a good way to keep the disease at control. As this process uses some amount of insulin thus reduces the chance of being affected by more amount of insulin.
Smoking is dangerous for our health and it has effect on type-2 diabetes as well. So, quit smoking to reduce the risk.
Proper eating is vital to have a control on this disease. Cut down the sugar, processed foods, carbs, saturated and trans-fat, red meat and processed meats.
For some, the type-2 diabetes can be handled just by following the exact diet and doing proper exercise. But it might not work for others and this is where the need of diabetes medications and insulin therapy arises.
Some possible treatments for type-2 diabetes are:
• Metformin: This is most probably the first medication prescribed for type-2 diabetes. It improves the uses of insulin by our body through increasing the body sensitivity to insulin tissue. Along with that, the production of glucose in liver is also reduced. But when this medicine is not enough to control the blood sugar level, other medicines are prescribed by the doctors.
• Sulfonylureas:This is an oral medication that directs the beta cells for releasing more amount of insulin.
• Meglitinides: This medicine also works the same way as Sulfonylureas.
• Biguanides: This is another drug like Metformin that reduces blood sugar in the liver along with increasing the muscle sensitivity to insulin tissue.
• DPP-4 inhibitors: This oral drug reduces the blood sugar level thus helps in controlling type-2 diabetes.
• SGLT2 inhibitors: This drug helps in removing extra glucose from body through urine.
• Thiazolidinediones: This medicine helps the muscles and fat tissue to use insulin effectively so that the amount of insulin is maintained in the body. It also controls the amount of blood sugar in the liver.
If all these above points are maintained properly, the risk of type-2 diabetes will be half very soon.
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